目前分類:教育概論作業 (19)

瀏覽方式: 標題列表 簡短摘要
因為好奇,所以我看了《人間失格》這本書,但在看的時候我滿腦子想的都是關於"艾瑞克森(E._Erikson)人格發展論"的觀點應證😅
 
我認為書中主角大庭葉藏因為沒有機會在長輩和環境的引導下於心理上順利成長為"青春期"和"成年早期",即是身體已經長大,但內心的需求一直還停留在"學齡期"或"學齡初期",而導致悲劇,讓主角最終甚至覺得自己不配為人...
 
p.s.溫馨提醒:我不建議大家去看《人間失格》原書,大家能理解有一些文學作品/藝術作品的力量是很大的嗎?我看這本書的時候,覺得這個故事有蠻多不好的負能量的😥可能讓我上學公車等很久,差點遲到這樣😂(誤)
人間失格_太宰治_taaze.jpg
*什麼是"艾瑞克森(E._Erikson)人格發展論"?
文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

Xmind_coggle_Mindly_截圖.png

*本文源自教育系必修"教學媒體與應用"課程學習心得筆記文*

對於文科學生而言,各種報告都有可能要用到精美的簡報大圖

而其中,在簡報中放入心智圖,就是一種活潑又清晰的呈現方式😆

根據教育學系"教學媒體與應用"課程課堂上的學習筆記,我就來推薦3種簡易又方便的手機心智圖app

 

1. Xmind

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

第七章標題〈教育中的民主概念〉,前幾章討論的教育思想可能使用在多種社會中,這章討論的是「在不同社會形式中發展出的不同指導方式及精神差異」。

民主與教育_taaze.jpg

因為不同的社會特性、生活習慣會讓孩子在透過教育社會化時學習的核心和方針不同。也因為如此「必須有一個可以衡量任何社會生活模式缺點的標準」(p. 113)

「一個社會若能妥善安排所有成員平等地參與全體的共同利益,並且在與其他群體互動中彈性地調整制度,就可以算是民主。」(p. 132)

書中舉例三種有重要歷史意義的教育哲學:

一是柏拉圖主張「教育的功能即在發現每個人的天資性向,並逐步調教它們成為社會所用。」(p. 120)但這想法的不足之處是以階級而非個人為單位來實現。

二是十八世紀啟蒙運動中興起的個人主義,學習以個人的進步為目的。但這理論把發展的過程歸為「自然」,缺乏一套學習方法或系統。

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

這次教育概論的作業是要"讀一本偉人傳記的教育經驗部分"

我讀的書是中華書版社的《富蘭克林傳》(尹雪曼譯),是富蘭克林的翻譯自傳。

書中說,富蘭克林在八歲進入文法學校,原本富蘭克林的父親希望富蘭克林可以長大後在教會服務,因為富蘭克林從小就喜歡讀書。進入文法學校後,富蘭克林成績名列前茅,甚至跳級就讀,父親一度期望他成為學者光宗耀祖。但依考慮到家裡的經濟情況,當學者意味著至至少要上大學,家裡不夠上大學的學費條件。

富蘭克林於是被父親轉到一個學習寫作和算數的學校,該校老師以溫和和鼓勵的方法教導學生。富蘭克林在老師的教導下養成一手好字,雖然算術能力不太強…

十歲時,富蘭克林因為家中生計被迫中斷學習,回家幫父親做蠟燭和肥皂生意。

後來的日子,富蘭克林憑著自己對書本的熱愛,自讀史學、名人傳記等書

(p.s.名人小時候也看其他各種名人的傳記,我覺得這件事想來還真有趣!)

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

**本文源自系必修“教育概論”的指定作業

民主與教育_taaze.jpg

本章寫出三種教育理念的基本概念,並且一一反駁及解釋這三種型態的教育思想有何缺點與問題。

第一種教育想法是「教育是做準備」。缺點是讓小孩依著大人對他的期望去努力準備那不確定又遙遠的未來。

刺激(激勵)的方法可能從鼓勵演變成利誘和恐嚇…然後作者說,「錯誤不在重視為未來做準備的工作,而在拿未來當作現在努力的主要動機。」(p. 82)

第二種是「教育即展現」,需要將可朝確定目標走的潛能"發現"並使用出來,成長與進步是逐步接近最終目標的方法或手段。

但這想法又忽略了人在學習過程中,個人特質還是會與環境相互作用而改變等等,且作者第四章主張過他說明「教育即成長」,成長不只是手段。

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

第六章標題是「保守的教育與進步的教育」,文中寫了三種教育思想的形式,其中包含回顧過去和嘗試培養創造能力的主張。

民主與教育_taaze.jpg

一是「教育是塑造過程」,強調外力(教材)在教育和心智建構中的重要性。教育必須有一套正規步驟(包含教材)。「教育變成按明確目標有意去做的事,不再是偶發的靈感與順從傳統的複合。」(p. 99)

而作者指出此觀點的缺失是忽略了人天生的心智、主動性、忽略人與環境的交互影響,也忽略學生天性對學習和技能操作都有幫助的那些個人差異和稟賦。

二是「教育是重演與回顧」,按重演論,個人發展時的階段會重現動物生命和人類歷史的過往演化。而此理論錯誤的部分卻也在這裡,如果只是重複而不進步(進化),那人類文明便停留原地。

「教育要做的不是教孩子走上重演過去之路,而是把孩子從復興過去重蹈過去中釋放出來。」(p. 102)

更進一步的分析,遺傳或環境對教育的影響,在一些教育理論中被忽視…學習過去的東西會對我們有用,常是因為我們現在認為它有意義。教育的功能是為了保持成長過程不息;而現在則是任放下過去以後的生活樣貌。

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

Chapter Six: Education as Conservative and Progressive
民主與教育_taaze.jpg
3. Education as Reconstruction. In its contrast with the ideas both of unfolding of latent powers from within, and of the formation from without, whether by physical nature or by the cultural products of the past, the ideal of growth results in the conception that education is a constant reorganizing or reconstructing of experience. It has all the time an immediate end, and so far as activity is educative, it reaches that end—the direct transformation of the quality of experience. Infancy, youth, adult life,—all stand on the same educative level in the sense that what is really learned at any and every stage of experience constitutes the value of that experience, and in the sense that it is the chief business of life at every point to make living thus contribute to an enrichment of its own perceptible meaning.
 
We thus reach a technical definition of education: It is that reconstruction or reorganization of experience which adds to the meaning of experience, and which increases ability to direct the course of subsequent experience. (1) The increment of meaning corresponds to the increased perception of the connections and continuities of the activities in which we are engaged. The activity begins in an impulsive form; that is, it is blind. It does not know what it is about; that is to say, what are its interactions with other activities. An activity which brings education or instruction with it makes one aware of some of the connections which had been imperceptible. To recur to our simple example, a child who reaches for a bright light gets burned. Henceforth he knows that a certain act of touching in connection with a certain act of vision (and vice-versa) means heat and pain; or, a certain light means a source of heat. The acts by which a scientific man in his laboratory learns more about flame differ no whit in principle. By doing certain things, he makes perceptible certain connections of heat with other things, which had been previously ignored. Thus his acts in relation to these things get more meaning; he knows better what he is doing or "is about" when he has to do with them; he can intend consequences instead of just letting them happen—all synonymous ways of saying the same thing. At the same stroke, the flame has gained in meaning; all that is known about combustion, oxidation, about light and temperature, may become an intrinsic part of its intellectual content.
 
(2) The other side of an educative experience is an added power of subsequent direction or control. To say that one knows what he is about, or can intend certain consequences, is to say, of course, that he can better anticipate what is going to happen; that he can, therefore, get ready or prepare in advance so as to secure beneficial consequences and avert undesirable ones. A genuinely educative experience, then, one in which instruction is conveyed and ability increased, is contradistinguished from a routine activity on one hand, and a capricious activity on the other. (a) In the latter one "does not care what happens"; one just lets himself go and avoids connecting the consequences of one's act (the evidences of its connections with other things) with the act. It is customary to frown upon such aimless random activity, treating it as willful mischief or carelessness or lawlessness. But there is a tendency to seek the cause of such aimless activities in the youth's own disposition, isolated from everything else. But in fact such activity is explosive, and due to maladjustment with surroundings. Individuals act capriciously whenever they act under external dictation, or from being told, without having a purpose of their own or perceiving the bearing of the deed upon other acts. One may learn by doing something which he does not understand; even in the most intelligent action, we do much which we do not mean, because the largest portion of the connections of the act we consciously intend are not perceived or anticipated. But we learn only because after the act is performed we note results which we had not noted before. But much work in school consists in setting up rules by which pupils are to act of such a sort that even after pupils have acted, they are not led to see the connection between the result—say the answer—and the method pursued. So far as they are concerned, the whole thing is a trick and a kind of miracle. Such action is essentially capricious, and leads to capricious habits. (b) Routine action, action which is automatic, may increase skill to do a particular thing. In so far, it might be said to have an educative effect. But it does not lead to new perceptions of bearings and connections; it limits rather than widens the meaning-horizon. And since the environment changes and our way of acting has to be modified in order successfully to keep a balanced connection with things, an isolated uniform way of acting becomes disastrous at some critical moment. The vaunted "skill" turns out gross ineptitude.

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

Chapter Six: Education as Conservative and Progressive
民主與教育_taaze.jpg
1. Education as Formation. We now come to a type of theory which denies the existence of faculties and emphasizes the unique role of subject matter in the development of mental and moral disposition. According to it, education is neither a process of unfolding from within nor is it a training of faculties resident in mind itself. It is rather the formation of mind by setting up certain associations or connections of content by means of a subject matter presented from without. Education proceeds by instruction taken in a strictly literal sense, a building into the mind from without. That education is formative of mind is not questioned; it is the conception already propounded. But formation here has a technical meaning dependent upon the idea of something operating from without. Herbart is the best historical representative of this type of theory. He denies absolutely the existence of innate faculties. The mind is simply endowed with the power of producing various qualities in reaction to the various realities which act upon it. These qualitatively different reactions are called presentations (Vorstellungen). Every presentation once called into being persists; it may be driven below the "threshold" of consciousness by new and stronger presentations, produced by the reaction of the soul to new material, but its activity continues by its own inherent momentum, below the surface of consciousness. What are termed faculties—attention, memory, thinking, perception, even the sentiments, are arrangements, associations, and complications, formed by the interaction of these submerged presentations with one another and with new presentations. Perception, for example, is the complication of presentations which result from the rise of old presentations to greet and combine with new ones; memory is the evoking of an old presentation above the threshold of consciousness by getting entangled with another presentation, etc. Pleasure is the result of reinforcement among the independent activities of presentations; pain of their pulling different ways, etc.
 
The concrete character of mind consists, then, wholly of the various arrangements formed by the various presentations in their different qualities. The "furniture" of the mind is the mind. Mind is wholly a matter of "contents." The educational implications of this doctrine are threefold.
 
(1) This or that kind of mind is formed by the use of objects which evoke this or that kind of reaction and which produce this or that arrangement among the reactions called out. The formation of mind is wholly a matter of the presentation of the proper educational materials.

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

Chapter Five: Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline
民主與教育_taaze.jpg
3. Education as Training of Faculties. A theory which has had great vogue and which came into existence before the notion of growth had much influence is known as the theory of "formal discipline." It has in view a correct ideal; one outcome of education should be the creation of specific powers of accomplishment. A trained person is one who can do the chief things which it is important for him to do better than he could without training: "better" signifying greater ease, efficiency, economy, promptness, etc. That this is an outcome of education was indicated in what was said about habits as the product of educative development. But the theory in question takes, as it were, a short cut; it regards some powers (to be presently named) as the direct and conscious aims of instruction, and not simply as the results of growth. There is a definite number of powers to be trained, as one might enumerate the kinds of strokes which a golfer has to master. Consequently education should get directly at the business of training them. But this implies that they are already there in some untrained form; otherwise their creation would have to be an indirect product of other activities and agencies. Being there already in some crude form, all that remains is to exercise them in constant and graded repetitions, and they will inevitably be refined and perfected. In the phrase "formal discipline" as applied to this conception, "discipline" refers both to the outcome of trained power and to the method of training through repeated exercise.
 
The forms of powers in question are such things as the faculties of perceiving, retaining, recalling, associating, attending, willing, feeling, imagining, thinking, etc., which are then shaped by exercise upon material presented. In its classic form, this theory was expressed by Locke. On the one hand, the outer world presents the material or content of knowledge through passively received sensations. On the other hand, the mind has certain ready powers, attention, observation, retention, comparison, abstraction, compounding, etc. Knowledge results if the mind discriminates and combines things as they are united and divided in nature itself. But the important thing for education is the exercise or practice of the faculties of the mind till they become thoroughly established habitudes. The analogy constantly employed is that of a billiard player or gymnast, who by repeated use of certain muscles in a uniform way at last secures automatic skill. Even the faculty of thinking was to be formed into a trained habit by repeated exercises in making and combining simple distinctions, for which, Locke thought, mathematics affords unrivaled opportunity.
 
Locke's statements fitted well into the dualism of his day. It seemed to do justice to both mind and matter, the individual and the world. One of the two supplied the matter of knowledge and the object upon which mind should work. The other supplied definite mental powers, which were few in number and which might be trained by specific exercises. The scheme appeared to give due weight to the subject matter of knowledge, and yet it insisted that the end of education is not the bare reception and storage of information, but the formation of personal powers of attention, memory, observation, abstraction, and generalization. It was realistic in its emphatic assertion that all material whatever is received from without; it was idealistic in that final stress fell upon the formation of intellectual powers. It was objective and impersonal in its assertion that the individual cannot possess or generate any true ideas on his own account; it was individualistic in placing the end of education in the perfecting of certain faculties possessed at the outset by the individual. This kind of distribution of values expressed with nicety the state of opinion in the generations following upon Locke. It became, without explicit reference to Locke, a common-place of educational theory and of psychology. Practically, it seemed to provide the educator with definite, instead of vague, tasks. It made the elaboration of a technique of instruction relatively easy. All that was necessary was to provide for sufficient practice of each of the powers. This practice consists in repeated acts of attending, observing, memorizing, etc. By grading the difficulty of the acts, making each set of repetitions somewhat more difficult than the set which preceded it, a complete scheme of instruction is evolved. There are various ways, equally conclusive, of criticizing this conception, in both its alleged foundations and in its educational application. (1) Perhaps the most direct mode of attack consists in pointing out that the supposed original faculties of observation, recollection, willing, thinking, etc., are purely mythological. There are no such ready-made powers waiting to be exercised and thereby trained. There are, indeed, a great number of original native tendencies, instinctive modes of action, based on the original connections of neurones in the central nervous system. There are impulsive tendencies of the eyes to follow and fixate light; of the neck muscles to turn toward light and sound; of the hands to reach and grasp; and turn and twist and thump; of the vocal apparatus to make sounds; of the mouth to spew out unpleasant substances; to gag and to curl the lip, and so on in almost indefinite number. But these tendencies (a) instead of being a small number sharply marked off from one another, are of an indefinite variety, interweaving with one another in all kinds of subtle ways. (b) Instead of being latent intellectual powers, requiring only exercise for their perfecting, they are tendencies to respond in certain ways to changes in the environment so as to bring about other changes. Something in the throat makes one cough; the tendency is to eject the obnoxious particle and thus modify the subsequent stimulus. The hand touches a hot thing; it is impulsively, wholly unintellectually, snatched away. But the withdrawal alters the stimuli operating, and tends to make them more consonant with the needs of the organism. It is by such specific changes of organic activities in response to specific changes in the medium that that control of the environment of which we have spoken (see ante, p. 24) is effected. Now all of our first seeings and hearings and touchings and smellings and tastings are of this kind. In any legitimate sense of the words mental or intellectual or cognitive, they are lacking in these qualities, and no amount of repetitious exercise could bestow any intellectual properties of observation, judgment, or intentional action (volition) upon them.
文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

Chapter Five: Preparation, Unfolding, and Formal Discipline(第五章:準備、展現、正規訓練)
民主與教育_taaze.jpg
1. Education as Preparation. (教育是做準備)
We have laid it down that the educative process is a continuous process of growth, having as its aim at every stage an added capacity of growth. This conception contrasts sharply with other ideas which have influenced practice. By making the contrast explicit, the meaning of the conception will be brought more clearly to light. The first contrast is with the idea that education is a process of preparation or getting ready. What is to be prepared for is, of course, the responsibilities and privileges of adult life. Children are not regarded as social members in full and regular standing. They are looked upon as candidates; they are placed on the waiting list. The conception is only carried a little farther when the life of adults is considered as not having meaning on its own account, but as a preparatory probation for "another life." The idea is but another form of the notion of the negative and privative character of growth already criticized; hence we shall not repeat the criticisms, but pass on to the evil consequences which flow from putting education on this basis. In the first place, it involves loss of impetus. Motive power is not utilized. Children proverbially live in the present; that is not only a fact not to be evaded, but it is an excellence. The future just as future lacks urgency and body. To get ready for something, one knows not what nor why, is to throw away the leverage that exists, and to seek for motive power in a vague chance. Under such circumstances, there is, in the second place, a premium put on shilly-shallying and procrastination. The future prepared for is a long way off; plenty of time will intervene before it becomes a present. Why be in a hurry about getting ready for it? The temptation to postpone is much increased because the present offers so many wonderful opportunities and proffers such invitations to adventure. Naturally attention and energy go to them; education accrues naturally as an outcome, but a lesser education than if the full stress of effort had been put upon making conditions as educative as possible. A third undesirable result is the substitution of a conventional average standard of expectation and requirement for a standard which concerns the specific powers of the individual under instruction. (第三個不良後果是,按照符合習俗的一般標準要求孩子,不以個人確切能力在教導下的表現為準。)For a severe and definite judgment based upon the strong and weak points of the individual is substituted a vague and wavering opinion concerning what youth may be expected, upon the average, to become in some more or less remote future; say, at the end of the year, when promotions are to take place, or by the time they are ready to go to college or to enter upon what, in contrast with the probationary stage, is regarded as the serious business of life. It is impossible to overestimate the loss which results from the deflection of attention from the strategic point to a comparatively unproductive point. It fails most just where it thinks it is succeeding—in getting a preparation for the future.
 
Finally, the principle of preparation makes necessary recourse on a large scale to the use of adventitious motives of pleasure and pain. The future having no stimulating and directing power when severed from the possibilities of the present, something must be hitched on to it to make it work. (既然與眼前活動機會無關的未來沒有刺激力和引導力,就必須抓別的東西來達成效果。)Promises of reward and threats of pain are employed. Healthy work, done for present reasons and as a factor in living, is largely unconscious. The stimulus resides in the situation with which one is actually confronted. But when this situation is ignored, pupils have to be told that if they do not follow the prescribed course penalties will accrue; while if they do, they may expect, some time in the future, rewards for their present sacrifices. Everybody knows how largely systems of punishment have had to be resorted to by educational systems which neglect present possibilities in behalf of preparation for a future. Then, in disgust with the harshness and impotency of this method, the pendulum swings to the opposite extreme, and the dose of information required against some later day is sugar-coated, so that pupils may be fooled into taking something which they do not care for.
 
文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

**本文源自系必修“教育概論”的指定作業

民主與教育_taaze.jpg

第四章的標題是「教育即成長」,內文討論了成長、習慣,及「發展概念中的教育意義」。成長的基本條件是未成熟狀態,人們可能常將未成熟狀態看成不足、負面和缺陷的,但是何必呢?

為什麼非要以大人的眼光(衡量標準)來評價兒童?未成熟也可以被視為滿滿(極具潛能)的成長能力。

兒童對大人(照顧者)的依賴性也可以是有成長力積極的意思。兒童的可塑性則是另外一種適應成長的特殊能力,使人有能力從經驗中學習,包含習慣養成。

習慣可以指自身由學習與判斷,和環境磨合(遷就、適應)而來的內化行為。

教育即是培養有益個人適應環境的種種習慣。習慣也顯示智能的傾向,能夠有某種習慣,就一定含有理解及操作某相關領域的技能和配備知識(思考、觀察、感想的模式)

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

Chapter Four: Education as Growth(第四章:教育即成長)
民主與教育_taaze.jpg
1. The Conditions of Growth.(1.成長的條件)
In directing the activities of the young, society determines its own future in determining that of the young.(社會指導小孩子的行為而決定他們的未來,決定小孩子的未來也就是決定社會自己的未來。)
Since the young at a given time will at some later date compose the society of that period, the latter's nature will largely turn upon the direction children's activities were given at an earlier period. (一代的小孩子會成為以後一個時代的社會成員,他們組成的這個社會將是什麼模樣,主要取決於他們早先行為所受到的指導。)
This cumulative movement of action toward a later result is what is meant by growth.(這樣朝著制後結果累積的運動,就是成長的意涵。)
 
文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

Chapter Two: Education as a Social Function

民主與教育_taaze.jpg

3. The Social Medium as Educative. (3. 社會環境教育功能)

Our net result thus far is that social environment forms the mental and emotional disposition of behavior in individuals by engaging them in activities that arouse and strengthen certain impulses, that have certain purposes and entail certain consequences.(社會環境會養成個人行為的心理意向,因為社會環境此人從事的活動會引發並強化某些慾望,這些活動有一定目的,也有一定後果。) A child growing up in a family of musicians will inevitably have whatever capacities he has in music stimulated, and, relatively, stimulated more than other impulses which might have been awakened in another environment. Save as he takes an interest in music and gains a certain competency in it, he is "out of it"; he is unable to share in the life of the group to which he belongs. Some kinds of participation in the life of those with whom the individual is connected are inevitable; with respect to them, the social environment exercises an educative or formative influence unconsciously and apart from any set purpose.

In savage and barbarian communities, such direct participation (constituting the indirect or incidental education of which we have spoken) furnishes almost the sole influence for rearing the young into the practices and beliefs of the group. Even in present-day societies, it furnishes the basic nurture of even the most insistently schooled youth. (在原始未開化的社會裡,藉由親身參與而受影響,大概是年輕一代學會群體常規和想法的唯一方法。甚至在現代的社會裡,最持續接受學校教育的孩子,也是在親身參與中接受基礎的教養。)

In accord with the interests and occupations of the group, certain things become objects of high esteem; others of aversion. (由於群體有一定的利害考量,某些事會受推崇,某些事會遭排斥。)Association does not create impulses or affection and dislike, but it furnishes the objects to which they attach themselves. The way our group or class does things tends to determine the proper objects of attention, and thus to prescribe the directions and limits of observation and memory. What is strange or foreign (that is to say outside the activities of the groups) tends to be morally forbidden and intellectually suspect. It seems almost incredible to us, for example, that things which we know very well could have escaped recognition in past ages. We incline to account for it by attributing congenital stupidity to our forerunners and by assuming superior native intelligence on our own part. But the explanation is that their modes of life did not call for attention to such facts, but held their minds riveted to other things. Just as the senses require sensible objects to stimulate them, so our powers of observation, recollection, and imagination do not work spontaneously, but are set in motion by the demands set up by current social occupations. The main texture of disposition is formed, independently of schooling, by such influences. What conscious, deliberate teaching can do is at most to free the capacities thus formed for fuller exercise, to purge them of some of their grossness, and to furnish objects which make their activity more productive of meaning.(刻意教導能做到的,充其量只是把這樣形式的能力再放寬發揮,比其中一些粗糙部分剔除,再提供一些能使行為更有意義的目標。)

While this "unconscious influence of the environment" is so subtle and pervasive that it affects every fiber of character and mind, it may be worth while to specify a few directions in which its effect is most marked. First, the habits of language. Fundamental modes of speech, the bulk of the vocabulary, are formed in the ordinary intercourse of life, carried on not as a set means of instruction but as a social necessity. The babe acquires, as we well say, the mother tongue. While speech habits thus contracted may be corrected or even displaced by conscious teaching, yet, in times of excitement, intentionally acquired modes of speech often fall away, and individuals relapse into their really native tongue. Secondly, manners. Example is notoriously more potent than precept. Good manners come, as we say, from good breeding or rather are good breeding; and breeding is acquired by habitual action, in response to habitual stimuli, not by conveying information. Despite the never ending play of conscious correction and instruction, the surrounding atmosphere and spirit is in the end the chief agent in forming manners. And manners are but minor morals. Moreover, in major morals, conscious instruction is likely to be efficacious only in the degree in which it falls in with the general "walk and conversation" of those who constitute the child's social environment. Thirdly, good taste and esthetic appreciation. If the eye is constantly greeted by harmonious objects, having elegance of form and color, a standard of taste naturally grows up. The effect of a tawdry, unarranged, and over-decorated environment works for the deterioration of taste, just as meager and barren surroundings starve out the desire for beauty. Against such odds, conscious teaching can hardly do more than convey second-hand information as to what others think. Such taste never becomes spontaneous and personally engrained, but remains a labored reminder of what those think to whom one has been taught to look up. To say that the deeper standards of judgments of value are framed by the situations into which a person habitually enters is not so much to mention a fourth point, as it is to point out a fusion of those already mentioned. We rarely recognize the extent in which our conscious estimates of what is worth while and what is not, are due to standards of which we are not conscious at all. But in general it may be said that the things which we take for granted without inquiry or reflection are just the things which determine our conscious thinking and decide our conclusions. And these habitudes which lie below the level of reflection are just those which have been formed in the constant give and take of relationship with others.(大體而言,我們不加思索而認為理所當然的事,正是左右我們意識思考與推斷的力量所在。這種隱藏在思慮之下的行為慣性,就是從不斷的人際往來關係中養成的。)

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

Chapter Two: Education as a Social Function(第二章:教育是一種社會功能)
民主與教育_taaze.jpg
1. The Nature and Meaning of Environment. (1.環境的本質與意義)
We have seen that a community or social group sustains itself through continuous self-renewal, and that this renewal takes place by means of the educational growth of the immature members of the group. By various agencies, unintentional and designed, a society transforms uninitiated and seemingly alien beings into robust trustees of its own resources and ideals. Education is thus a fostering, a nurturing, a cultivating, process. All of these words mean that it implies attention to the conditions of growth. We also speak of rearing, raising, bringing up—words which express the difference of level which education aims to cover. Etymologically, the word education means just a process of leading or bringing up. When we have the outcome of the process in mind, we speak of education as shaping, forming, molding activity—that is, a shaping into the standard form of social activity. In this chapter we are concerned with the general features of the way in which a social group brings up its immature members into its own social form.
 
Since what is required is a transformation of the quality of experience till it partakes in the interests, purposes, and ideas current in the social group, the problem is evidently not one of mere physical forming. (教養應該做到的是,使個人經驗變質,終至融入社會群體的利益、目標、既有的想法。)Things can be physically transported in space; they may be bodily conveyed. Beliefs and aspirations cannot be physically extracted and inserted. How then are they communicated? Given the impossibility of direct contagion or literal inculcation, our problem is to discover the method by which the young assimilate the point of view of the old, or the older bring the young into like-mindedness with themselves. The answer, in general formulation, is: By means of the action of the environment in calling out certain responses. The required beliefs cannot be hammered in; the needed attitudes cannot be plastered on. But the particular medium in which an individual exists leads him to see and feel one thing rather than another; it leads him to have certain plans in order that he may act successfully with others; it strengthens some beliefs and weakens others as a condition of winning the approval of others. Thus it gradually produces in him a certain system of behavior, a certain disposition of action. The words "environment," "medium" denote something more than surroundings which encompass an individual. They denote the specific continuity of the surroundings with his own active tendencies. An inanimate being is, of course, continuous with its surroundings; but the environing circumstances do not, save metaphorically, constitute an environment. For the inorganic being is not concerned in the influences which affect it. On the other hand, some things which are remote in space and time from a living creature, especially a human creature, may form his environment even more truly than some of the things close to him. The things with which a man varies are his genuine environment. Thus the activities of the astronomer vary with the stars at which he gazes or about which he calculates. Of his immediate surroundings, his telescope is most intimately his environment. The environment of an antiquarian, as an antiquarian, consists of the remote epoch of human life with which he is concerned, and the relics, inscriptions, etc., by which he establishes connections with that period.
 
文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

Chapter One: Education as a Necessity of Life(第一章:教育是生活之必須)
民主與教育_taaze.jpg
3. The Place of Formal Education.
There is, accordingly, a marked difference between the education which every one gets from living with others, as long as he really lives instead of just continuing to subsist, and the deliberate educating of the young. In the former case the education is incidental; it is natural and important, but it is not the express reason of the association. While it may be said, without exaggeration, that the measure of the worth of any social institution, economic, domestic, political, legal, religious, is its effect in enlarging and improving experience; yet this effect is not a part of its original motive, which is limited and more immediately practical. Religious associations began, for example, in the desire to secure the favor of overruling powers and to ward off evil influences; family life in the desire to gratify appetites and secure family perpetuity; systematic labor, for the most part, because of enslavement to others, etc. Only gradually was the by-product of the institution, its effect upon the quality and extent of conscious life, noted, and only more gradually still was this effect considered as a directive factor in the conduct of the institution. Even today, in our industrial life, apart from certain values of industriousness and thrift, the intellectual and emotional reaction of the forms of human association under which the world's work is carried on receives little attention as compared with physical output.
 
But in dealing with the young, the fact of association itself as an immediate human fact, gains in importance. While it is easy to ignore in our contact with them the effect of our acts upon their disposition, or to subordinate that educative effect to some external and tangible result, it is not so easy as in dealing with adults. The need of training is too evident; the pressure to accomplish a change in their attitude and habits is too urgent to leave these consequences wholly out of account. Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life we cannot help considering whether or no we are forming the powers which will secure this ability. If humanity has made some headway in realizing that the ultimate value of every institution is its distinctively human effect—its effect upon conscious experience—we may well believe that this lesson has been learned largely through dealings with the young.
 
文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

Chapter One: Education as a Necessity of Life(第一章:教育是生活之必須)

民主與教育_taaze.jpg

1. Renewal of Life by Transmission. (1. 藉傳遞更新生活)

The most notable distinction between living and inanimate things is that the former maintain themselves by renewal. A stone when struck resists. If its resistance is greater than the force of the blow struck, it remains outwardly unchanged. Otherwise, it is shattered into smaller bits. Never does the stone attempt to react in such a way that it may maintain itself against the blow, much less so as to render the blow a contributing factor to its own continued action. While the living thing may easily be crushed by superior force, it none the less tries to turn the energies which act upon it into means of its own further existence. If it cannot do so, it does not just split into smaller pieces (at least in the higher forms of life), but loses its identity as a living thing.

As long as it endures, it struggles to use surrounding energies in its own behalf. It uses light, air, moisture, and the material of soil. To say that it uses them is to say that it turns them into means of its own conservation. As long as it is growing, the energy it expends in thus turning the environment to account is more than compensated for by the return it gets: it grows. Understanding the word "control" in this sense, it may be said that a living being is one that subjugates and controls for its own continued activity the energies that would otherwise use it up. Life is a self-renewing process through action upon the environment.(生活便是藉著操作環境達成自我更新的過程。)

In all the higher forms this process cannot be kept up indefinitely. After a while they succumb; they die. The creature is not equal to the task of indefinite self-renewal. But continuity of the life process is not dependent upon the prolongation of the existence of any one individual. Reproduction of other forms of life goes on in continuous sequence. And though, as the geological record shows, not merely individuals but also species die out, the life process continues in increasingly complex forms. As some species die out, forms better adapted to utilize the obstacles against which they struggled in vain come into being. Continuity of life means continual readaptation of the environment to the needs of living organisms.(生活的延續,就是不斷重新讓環境適合生物體的需求。)

We have been speaking of life in its lowest terms—as a physical thing. But we use the word "Life" to denote the whole range of experience, individual and racial. When we see a book called the Life of Lincoln we do not expect to find within its covers a treatise on physiology. We look for an account of social antecedents; a description of early surroundings, of the conditions and occupation of the family; of the chief episodes in the development of character; of signal struggles and achievements; of the individual's hopes, tastes, joys and sufferings. In precisely similar fashion we speak of the life of a savage tribe, of the Athenian people, of the American nation. "Life" covers customs, institutions, beliefs, victories and defeats, recreations and occupations.(生活涵蓋習俗、制度、信仰、成功與失敗、娛樂與工作。)

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

*本文源自系選修心理學課程老師分享的觀察心得*

心理學課堂上,老師問我們,你們覺得什麼樣特質的學生會選擇教育學系?

我們忽然一下答不上來😅老師說,根據她多年的觀察,只有

「在學校曾經有成功經驗」、

「對師生關係無恐懼感」、

「對教室和學校(教學環境)有安全及親切感」

的孩子們,才比較容易會選擇教育學系,選擇未來要成為老師。

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

**本文源自系必修“教育概論”的指定作業

第一章內容主要講述了「為什麼教育在人類社會中是必要的?」

民主與教育_taaze.jpg

人類身為生物所以會死亡,需要透過繁衍及教育(養育)下一代來傳承文明和知識。

「人與人的相處關係不論是何種形態,都因為可以提昇經驗的品質而具有意義,在與年幼者相處的關係中尤其顯著。」這是本章中與我目前生活經驗較有連結的話。

我覺得18歲到25歲或許是人類生命經驗當中最美妙的一段時期之一,因為這時候55歲以上的退休長輩們普遍將我們視為年幼的個體,而15歲以下的孩子又將視我們為大人。

在這段年齡我們同時既年長又年幼,既是被照顧者、學習者,也是照顧人者。

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()

**本文源自系必修“教育概論”的指定作業──分享自身經歷過的“特殊教育經驗”,分析好的及不好的**

板橋高中校球文化

學校因為校園太小,將排球選為校球,時常舉辦排球比賽,體育課也三年都有排球課XDD

小提醒,板中還有自己建的游泳池,所以排球和游泳是每班三年內體育課一定會上到的課喔!!

 

三好校園

三好校園標語為「做好事、說好話、存好心」,與向上向善的菩提精神一同融入校規和班級經營文化當中。

文章標籤

410211 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()